one of the most important basis of world economies is agriculture industries, and also the most influencing factor to mitigate hunger and to bring welfare. Soil monitoring has especially focused on nutrition conditions, pesticides and contaminants, including toxic elements (e.g., mercury, lead, and arsenic) and persistent organic pollutants (POPs) through the centuries. Typically, there are many problems in examining these and similar factors. One of these problems is soil sampling, which causes soil degradation. In addition, this process may be repeated several times.
Errors related to project analysis and execution are also raised due to the variety of methods and references. However, as analytical methods evolve and human knowledge of environmental processes and the effects of pollutants increases, the focus of monitoring will expand over time and its quality will improve.

 

 

Soil monitoring implicates gathering and/or analyzing of soil-associated parameters data, component, and physical conditions to specify or ensure its health capability for use. Many risks may be posed to the soil, including contamination, compaction, loss of organic material, and biodiversity, acidification, erosion, and salinization. Soil monitoring helps describe some of these threats and risks to the soil, the living ambient, and all living creatures health.
Monitoring these risks and other threats can face soil to some challenges due to a vast range of factors, including soil complexity and heterogeneity; lack of toxicity data, scarcity of finding out a contaminant’s destiny, and variation in levels of soil screening. This needs a threat evaluation strategy and assessing techniques that prioritize nature protection, decreasing risk, and sometimes treatment methods. Soil monitoring plays a key role in that; assessing the threats, not only helping in the identification of endangered and affected regions but also in the establishment of soil foundation values.
Individual samples and multiple samples are used to assess soil, determine set points, and find risks such as erosion, acidification, compaction, contamination, loss of organic material and biodiversity, salinization, and slope instability.

-Salinity Sensing:
Remote Monitoring, electromagnetic induction and GIS are used to monitor soil salinity, which can cause damaging effects on quality of water, sub struction, and plant yield if imbalanced..
Internet of Things sensors collect data related to humidity, temperature. amount of water reservoir, and other necessary factors, continuously and online. Farmers can utilize this data to compare trends or set points and estimate irrigation needs.
Wireless monitoring feature helps growers to monitor crop water levels, temperature and other parameters even at home, saving time and endeavor. Farmers are able to access online data, real time on webs using PCs as well as on mobile devices.
Irrigation efficiency is improved by IoT sensors and actuators.
A main parameter in underground plant activity is soil temperature, that may influence respiration, root growth, decomposition, and mineralisation of nitrogen. However, the most precise measurement tool is to use a probe buried in the soil. Internet of Things sensors can predict soil temperature by measuring air temperature and other factors, such as:
moisture of the soil
ambient pressure
amount of water reservoir
Soil water demand
NPK Soil sensors
Some of the key soil nutrients like Nitrogen, Phosphorous and Potassium (pot-ash) can be measured through IoT sensors. NPK IoT sensors use several different technologies, but time-domain reflectometry (TDR) is a popular method that uses these sensors. RS485 is supported by NPK sensors for merging IoT solutions, including data loggers and LoRaWAN.
composed NPK sensors can measure:
Moisture
Nitrogen
EC
Potassium
Phosphorous
Temperature
pH